Christian History Institute

Sharing our story of faith across the ages

items tagged with martyrs

Timeline

Anniversaries

January

1964

Martyrdom of Irene Farrel in the Congo, the first martyr for Baptist Mid-Missions.
July

64

Emperor Nero initiated a reign of state terror against Christians, whom he executed with sadistic tortures.

In Context

  1. Truth conquers all things.
    Jan Hus (ca. 1369–1415), in a letter to Christian of Prachatice
  2. I think that ill fortune is of greater advantage to men than good fortune.
    Boethius (ca. 470–524), in The Consolation of Philosophy.
  3. They who belong to Christ destroy the property of Christ more than enemies.
    John Chrysostom (ca. 345–407), from On the Priesthood.
  4. He can no longer have God for his Father, who has not the church for his mother.
    Cyprian of Carthage (died 258), from On the Unity of the Church.
  5. The prison was made a palace for me.
    Vibia Perpetua (ca. 180–ca. 202), in Acts of the Martyrs.
  6. You can kill us, but you can’t hurt us.
    Justin Martyr (ca. 100–ca. 165), in his First Apology.
  7. Fourscore and six years have I served him, and he has never done me injury.
    Polycarp of Smyrna (ca. 69–ca. 155). Quoted in a letter from the church of Smyrna.
  8. I am the wheat of God and am ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure bread of Christ.
    Ignatius of Antioch (died ca. 107), in his letter to the Romans.

Study Modules

Productions

Pocket Classics

  • The Lyons Martyrs and Their Persecution

    1994

    During the second century, the church in Lyons, France, came under severe persecution. This letter describes their horrifying ordeal. (Call 1-800-468-0458 to order)

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  • Justin Martyr's First Apology

    1994

    Justin Martyr was a philosopher turned Christian in the second century AD. Read his famous defense of the faith. (Call 1-800-468-0458 to order)

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Books

  • From Christ to Constantine (Out of Print)

    1991

    by A Kenneth Curtis and Carsten Thiede. An image-packed look at the trials and testimony of the early church. (Out of print.)

DVDs

  • The Torchlighters: The Jim Elliot Story

    2005

    Animated account of missionary Jim Elliot and his associates who died bringing the gospel to Indians in Ecuador. Languages: English, Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic, Cantonese, Mandarin, Korean, Hindi, Gujarati.

    AWARDS

    • Gold Crown Award - Crown Awards 2006
    • Gold Remi Award - Worldfest - Houston 2006
    • Gold Award - Best Children's Film - ICVM Crown Award 2006

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  • The Torchlighters: The William Tyndale Story

    2005

    Animated account of the life of the Bible translator and martyr William Tyndale. Languages: English, Spanish, Arabic, Cantonese, Mandarin, Korean, Hindi, Gujarati.

    AWARDS

    • Gold Remi; Children’s Category at 2007 Worldfest Houston International Film Festival
    • Silver Crown Award, Best Curriculum at 2007 International Christian Visual Media Crown Awards
    • Bronze Crown Award, Best Picture at 2007 International Christian Visual Media Crown Awards
    • Silver Crown Award, Best Children’s Film at 2007 International Christian Visual Media Crown Awards
    • Silver Crown Award, Best Youth Film at 2007 International Christian Visual Media Crown Awards

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  • The Torchlighters: The Richard Wurmbrand Story

    2008

    Animated account of Richard Wurmbrand who suffered in prison under the Communists in Romania and went on to found The Voice of the Martyrs.

    Learn More

  • The Torchlighters: The Perpetua Story

    2009

    Animated true story of Perpetua a young mother of the noble class who accepted death in the arena at Carthage rather than renounce Christ.

    Learn More

  • Perpetua: Early Church Martyr

    2011

    Perpetua: Early Church Martyr documents the life and martyrdom of Perpetua in Carthage around AD 202. This young mother dared to claim Jesus as her Lord in the face of Roman opposition, giving up wealth, freedom, and eventually life itself, rather than renounce her faith.

    AWARDS

    • Winner 2011 WorldFest Houston Silver Remi.

    Learn More

Magazine Issues

Articles

23 Feb 2017

A war story: “There is no pit so deep God’s love is not deeper still“

by Kaylena Radcliff | Issue 121

One was an ethnically Jewish Carmelite nun , the other a Dutch Reformed watchmaker. One received her doctorate, the other initially failed to get even a Bible training certificate. On the surface Edith Stein (1891–1942) and Corrie ten Boom (1892–1983) had little in common, but their faith and choices during World War II bound them in suffering.

[Last photograph of Edith Stein]

The Watchmaker’s Daughter

Cornelia (Corrie) ten Boom was the fourth surviving child of a poor but generous Dutch Reformed couple, Casper and Cornelia ten Boom. After...

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19 Aug 2014

Perpetua’s calling to Christ leads her to separate from her family

by Perpetua | Issue 110

AFTER a few days there prevailed a report that we should be heard. And then my father came to me from the city, worn out with anxiety. He came up to me, that he might cast me down, saying, “Have pity my daughter, on my gray hairs. Have pity on your father, if I am worthy to be called a father by you. If with these hands I have brought you up to this flower of your age, if I have preferred you to all your brothers, do not deliver me up to the scorn of men. Have regard to your brothers, have regard to your mother and your aunt, have regard to...

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23 May 2014

Recommended resources

by The editors | Issue 109

Books

Many books tell in depth the stories of some Christians you have met in these pages. They include 

• Helen Berhane: Song of the Nightingale

• Asia Bibi: Blasphemy: A Memoir: Sentenced to Death over a Cup of Water by Bibi as told to Anne-Isabelle Tollet. 

• Jim Elliot and Operation Auca: Through Gates of Splendor and Shadow of the Almighty: The Life and Testament of Jim Elliot by Elisabeth Elliot; End of the Spear by Steve Saint; Jungle Pilot: The Gripping Story of the Life and Witness of Nate Saint by Russell Hitt. 

• Festo...

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23 May 2014

Is there a global war?

by John Allen Jr. | Issue 109

CH: How do we define persecution? What defines a martyr?

JA:  There are two different questions here. First, there is the technical ecclesiastical question—how does a particular faith community define martyrdom and venerate their martyrs? But there is a broader question: how do we define anti-Christian persecution?  

CH : Let’s talk about that some more. We know that in your tradition [Allen is Roman Catholic], a distinction is made between those who are killed in odium fidei (in hatred of the faith) and in odium iustitiae (in hatred of truth...

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23 May 2014

Editor’s note

by Jennifer Woodruff Tait | Issue 109

WHAT YOU HOLD in your hand is a very unusual issue of Christian History . You might want to call it “Living Christian History.”

For over a decade, Christian History Institute (CHI) and The Voice of the Martyrs (VOM), an organization that helps persecuted Christians around the world, have cooperated in developing the Torchlighters series of DVDs—short, animated videos that introduce children to heroes of the Christian faith. The series has raised modern viewers’ awareness not only of inspiring Christians from the past but of the fact,...

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23 May 2014

Did you know?

by The editors | Issue 109

Serving Christ until the end

Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, is one of the earliest martyrs about whom we have an eyewitness account. In the second century, his church in Smyrna fell under great persecution. When soldiers came to arrest him, Polycarp ordered food set before them and asked for an hour to pray. His prayer was so impressive that the soldiers questioned their orders. They allowed him not one but two hours before leading him back to town. 

There a magistrate ordered Polycarp to renounce Christ and give obedience to Caesar as Lord....

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22 May 2014

The Jerusalem of the East

by Hyun Sook Foley | Issue 109

PROFESSOR CHO grew up in Pyongyang, the capital of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea—North Korea, as it is popularly known. A devoted patriot, he fought against United Nations forces for North Korea’s founder Kim Il Sung (1912–1994) during the Korean War (1950–1953). Following the war he left military duty, graduated from a university, and worked as a college professor for 30 years.

But upon his retirement, the dutiful professor and his family were expelled onto the streets. There is no word meaning “pension” in North Korean. Cho...

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22 May 2014

Hard pressed but not crushed

by Yabibal Teklu | Issue 109

SINCE AFRICAN CHURCH FATHER Tertullian wrote (c. 200) that “the blood of the saints is the seed of the church,” African Christians have never lived without persecution. Yet in the midst of the suffering, the African church has expanded.  

“i will struggle till the end”

Persecution dogged Christians in Ethiopia since Christianity was first introduced there in the fourth century (see CH 105, Christianity in Early Africa ). In the centuries since, many Christians have been killed, wounded, dislocated, discriminated against, and terrorized...

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22 May 2014

Offering himself for a stranger

by Heidi Schlumpf | Issue 109

AFTER AN EXHAUSTING DAY of forced labor in July of 1941, the prisoners at the Auschwitz concentration camp lined up for evening roll call, only to discover that a prisoner was missing. Immediately, guards and dogs began the hunt for the escaped inmate, a man from Block 14. 

The remaining prisoners, already gaunt from living on a mere 300 to 500 calories a day, were forced to stand at attention for three hours while the search continued. But the real torture was wondering which prisoners from the escapee’s cell block would pay—as had been...

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22 May 2014

Marching in the Lord’s Army

by Edwin Woodruff Tait | Issue 109

SOMETIME IN THE 1910s, Iosif Trifa, the Orthodox priest serving the Transylvanian mountain village of   Vidra de Sus, was shocked by the arrival of the first “neo-Protestant” missionary, who began evangelizing Orthodox villagers. Trifa contacted the mayor and the chief of police and asked them to “take measures” to remove this dangerous threat. But he was stopped in his tracks by an old parishioner who said that the intruder “doesn’t smoke, doesn’t drink, doesn’t fight with anyone. We [the Orthodox] are worse than he is.”

This incident...

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22 May 2014

Tortured for Christ

by Merv Knight | Issue 109

IT WAS AUGUST 1969. I was standing with the crowd in the international arrivals hall at Sydney Airport, along with two other representatives from Ambassadors for Christ International (AFCI). The sliding door opened at intervals; a trickle of passengers arriving in Australia made their way into the terminal.

The door opened, and a figure stood gazing into the crowd. We had seen pictures of our guest—6 feet 3 inches and always in a dark suit, clerical collar, and homburg hat. That was what we saw appearing through the door: suit, collar, and...

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22 May 2014

Start seeing persecution

by The editors and Roy Stults | Issue 109

HAVE YOU SEEN the bumper stickers that say “Start seeing motorcycles”? Those working on the frontlines of global Christianity are trying to get the rest of us to start seeing the persecution they see every day and to stand alongside those who are suffering for their Christian faith. Roy Stults, educational services coordinator and administrator of The Voice of the Martyrs’ online classroom, shares with Christian History some things he has learned researching and teaching about the persecution of Christians.  

CH : What are we not seeing when...

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22 May 2014

“Father forgive them”

by Christof Sauer and Thomas Schirrmacher | Issue 109

“FROM ABEL TO THE END OF TIMES, the people of God will always suffer persecution on their journey through time,” Augustine once said. And Jesus forewarned his followers: “Your lot won’t be any better than that of your master” (Matt. 10:25). 

Persecution of Christians tends to make the headlines only when it is violent and systematic and when governments perpetrate it. But the reality is more complex. On the human level, persecution comes from worldviews competing for influence, ruling powers feeling threatened by people who hold to a higher...

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14 Feb 2006

Martyrs to the Spear

by Kathryn Long and Carolyn Nystrom | Issue 89

O n Wednesday, January 11, 1956, a Piper Cruiser PA-14 dipped slowly over the Curaray River in eastern Ecuador. Mission Aviation Fellowship (MAF) pilot Johnny Keenan leaned out the window, looking, looking. Below him squatted the stripped remains of another yellow Piper. Nothing stirred. Then, about a quarter mile downriver, he saw the khaki pants and white shirt of a young man floating face down in the water. Johnny reached for his radio.

On the other end of his call, some 50 miles away at Shell Mera, sat pilot wife, Marj Saint. She...

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15 Nov 2001

Model Martyrs

by William Flower, 1555 | Issue 72

In the year 1569 a pious, faithful brother and follower of Jesus Christ, named Dirk Willems, was apprehended at Asperen, in Holland, and had to endure severe tyranny from the papists. But as he had founded his faith not upon the drifting sand of human commandments, but upon the firm foundation stone, Christ Jesus, he, notwithstanding all evil winds of human doctrine, and heavy showers of tyrannical and severe persecution, remained immovable and steadfast unto the end. . . .

Concerning his apprehension, it is stated by trustworthy persons,...

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25 May 2013

The hunger games and the love feast

by Edwin Woodruff Tait | Issue 105

ON MARCH 7, 203, the Roman colony of Carthage celebrated the birthday of Geta Caesar, 14-year-old son of Emperor Septimius Severus. Severus was an African—an ambitious provincial from the lesser aristocracy who had fought his way to power in a civil war 10 years earlier. Just the previous year, he had waged a successful campaign in Africa. Roman power had been vindicated, the barbarians had been driven back, and peace had been confirmed.  

RULING ROMANS

Roman Carthage was founded in conquest, literally built on the ruins of Rome’s greatest...

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28 Feb 1998

Evangelists to the Death

by William H.C. Frend | Issue 57

T he blood of Christians is seed,” wrote Tertullian, a North African Christian, in about 197. “[It is] the bait that wins men to our school. We multiply whenever we are mown down by you.”

Tertullian, of course, wrote with rhetorical exaggeration. Pagans hardly flocked to the church after witnessing the death of Christians. Martyrdom eventually made a large-scale impact on pagans but not before two centuries of sacrifice.

The pleasure of persecution

Ordinary citizens in Tertullian’s day were not impressed with Christian deaths. In fact, they...

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30 Nov 1995

The English Reformation’s Most Famous Martyrs

by the Editors | Issue 48

Nicholas Ridley 
(1500–1555)

Shaped Cranmer’s thinking

Nicholas Ridley had one of the finest minds in England, and after attending Cambridge and the Sorbonne in Paris, settled down to a scholarly career at Cambridge. About 1534, he began showing interest in Protestantism, and in 1537, he became chaplain to Archbishop Thomas Cranmer. He influenced Cranmer’s thinking, moving Cranmer from the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation.

In the 1540s, when a Roman Catholic reaction set in during Henry’s reign, he was suspected of heresy, but during...

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31 May 1995

John Knox and the Scottish Reformation: A Gallery of Martyrs and Architects

by J. Stephen Lang | Issue 46

Patrick Hamilton 
(1504?—1528)

First Protestant martyr

Scotland’s first Protestant martyr was a member of the mighty Hamilton family. While some Hamilton men grew rich from their powerful positions in the church, Patrick did something different: he began to take his faith seriously.

While studying at Scotland’s St. Andrews University, he became attracted to the views of Martin Luther. He wrote a book that was condemned as heretical and for a time he took refuge in Germany. He quickly returned to Scotland and began preaching the Protestant...

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1 Mar 1993

Praying to the Dead

by Mark Galli | Issue 37

PRAYING TO THE SAINTS began with the practice of praying for  them. Any Christian who died was remembered in prayer, and services took place on the third, seventh, ninth, thirtieth, and fortieth day after death. For martyrs, annual remembrances of their death were celebrated and called “birthdays,” the day the person was born into heavenly life with Christ.

Soon churches drew up lists of martyrs, believing that prayer for martyrs was of “great benefit to those for whom it is offered” (Cyril of Jerusalem). Origen said praying for the dead...

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31 Aug 1990

The Gallery: Martyrs and Confessors

by John O. Gooch | Issue 27

Ignatius of Antioch 
(d. c. 107–117)

Escorted to his death by ten Roman soldiers

“I am the wheat of God and am ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure bread of God.” So wrote Bishop Ignatius of Antioch (in Syria) as he was being taken to Rome under close military guard.

It is unsure why Ignatius had been arrested, but his journey was more like a triumphal procession than a journey to death. At nearly every stop, he met leaders of the local church, and he wrote letters to a series of churches and one to Bishop...

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31 Aug 1990

How the Early Church Viewed Martyrs

by William G. Bixler | Issue 27

The early church’s theology of martyrdom was born not in synods or councils, but in sunlit, blood—drenched coliseums and catacombs, dark and still as death. The word martyr  means “witness” and is used as such throughout the New Testament. However, as the Roman Empire became increasingly hostile toward Christianity, the distinctions between witnessing and suffering became blurred and finally nonexistent.

In the second century, then, martyr  became a technical term for a person who had died for Christ, while confessor  was defined as one who...

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31 Aug 1990

From the Archives: Perpetua & Polycarp: Two Heroic Martyrs

by Perpetua | Issue 27

Perpetua

In A.D. 202, Emperor Septimius Severus disallowed conversions to Christianity. In the wake of that act, severe persecution broke out against Christians, particularly in North Africa. Living in Carthage at the time was Perpetua, a young noblewoman and new Christian who was preparing for baptism. Though Perpetua was only about 22 years old, and was still nursing her infant son, she (with four other catechumens) was arrested and thrown into prison.

While we were still under arrest, my father, out of love for me, was trying to persuade...

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31 Aug 1990

When Christianity Triumphed

by William H. C. Frend | Issue 27

THE CHRISTIANS’ TRIUMPH over the pagan Empire brought its own problems.

Constantine’s imperial patronage did, of course, assure Christianity’s victory. And the Emperor summoned the first general councils of the church, at in 314 and Nicea in 325.

The imperial presence, however, had its less happy side. The persecution under Diocletian and his colleagues had caused schism in the North African church. In 312 the North African majority rejected Caecilian as bishop of Carthage, on the grounds that he had shown insensitivity toward imprisoned...

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31 Aug 1990

Persecution in the Early Church 2

by William H. C. Frend | Issue 27

EARLY CHRISTIANS expected suffering. Christ had died on the cross, so there was no higher honor than to imitate that death through accepting martyrdom (witness by one’s blood). The Jewish legacy portrayed, in writings such as the Fourth Book of the Maccabees, the glorious nature of death rather than renunciation of Israel; even without this, Christianity would inevitably have held the martyr’s death in high esteem. As the writer of 1 Peter expressed it, “If you suffer as a Christian, do not be ashamed, but praise God that you bear that...

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Showing 1-25 of 41 records.

Blog Posts

Products

  • Servant of Christ - Robert Jermain Thomas and the Korean Revivals $11.99

    Servant of Christ - Robert Jermain Thomas and the Korean Revivals

    • DVD
    • 27 Minutes
    • Documentary
    • All
    • 2011
    • Gary Wilkinson

    A young Welsh missionary name Robert Jermain Thomas left the shores of Britain to minister God's Word in China and Korea. His martyrdom would be the seed that would grow and contribute to the Korean revivals in 1903 and 1907. Be encouraged by his testimony and the growth of Christianity in Korea.

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine #109: Eyewitness to the Modern Age of Persecution $5.00

    Christian History Magazine #109: Eyewitness to the Modern Age of Persecution

    • Magazine
    • 2014
    • 55 Pages
    • Christian History Institute

    This special issue of Christian History magazine tells the inspiring stories of believers who stood with Christ in the face of persecution during the last hundred years.

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine #105: Christianity in Early Africa $5.00

    Christian History Magazine #105: Christianity in Early Africa

    • Magazine
    • 2013
    • 43 Pages
    • Christian History Institute

    Discover early African roots of our common faith. Stories of faithful heroes, martyrs, bishops, and monks--like Tertullian, Augustine, Origen, Perpetua, and Anthony--combine with vibrant images of African art, worship sites, and archeological remains to uncover important history Westerners often overlook. Journey to ancient Carthage, Alexandria and Hippo to find the truths these believers held dear and understand how their impact is still felt today.

    Details
  • Bonhoeffer set of 3 $29.99

    Bonhoeffer set of 3

    • DVD
    • 3 DVDs
    • 300 Minutes
    • All
    • Christian History Institute

    Bonhoeffer Collection: set of 3 DVD: Bonhoeffer Agent of Grace, Bonhoeffer: Hanged on a Twisted Cross, Bonhoeffer: Memories and Perspectives

    Details
  • Pocket Classics: The Persecution & Martyrdoms of Lyons in 177 AD $1.00

    Pocket Classics: The Persecution & Martyrdoms of Lyons in 177 AD

    • Other
    • 16 Pages
    • 1994
    • Christian History Institute

    The Letter of the Churches of Vienna and Lyons to the Churches of Asia and Phrygia including the story of the Blessed Blandina.

    Details
  • Perpetua: Early Church Martyr $11.99

    Perpetua: Early Church Martyr

    • DVD
    • 61 Minutes
    • Documentary
    • All
    • 2009
    • Christian History Institute

    This young mother, along with other new believers, held firm in her faith against the Roman Empire and paid the ultimate price with her life. life.

    Details
  • Torchlighters: Perpetua Story $10.00

    Torchlighters: Perpetua Story

    • DVD
    • 30 Minutes
    • Animation
    • All
    • 2009
    • Christian History Institute

    It is the year AD 203 in Carthage, North Africa. Perpetua, an affluent young mother, is charged with converting to Christianity and is sent to prison. But her freedom can be secured easily. All she has to do is offer one pinch of incense in honor to the Roman gods. What will her decision be?

    Details
  • Richard and Sabina Wurmbrand $12.00

    Richard and Sabina Wurmbrand

    • DVD
    • 50 Minutes
    • Documentary
    • All
    • 2008
    • Christian History Institute

    Before communism fell in Eastern Europe, Christians were often arrested and kept in prisons or labor camps where the Communists went to great lengths to break their faith. This is the story of a family whose faith endured.

    Details
  • Steve Saint: The Jungle Missionary $12.00

    Steve Saint: The Jungle Missionary

    • DVD
    • 49 Minutes
    • Documentary
    • All
    • 2007
    • Christian History Institute

    Steve Saint recalls life in the jungles of Ecuador and the events surrounding the death of his father, Nate Saint, and four other missionaries in 1956.

    Details
  • Torchlighters: The Jim Elliot Story $10.00

    Torchlighters: The Jim Elliot Story

    • DVD
    • 30 Minutes
    • Animation
    • All
    • 2005
    • Christian History Institute

    This stunning, half-hour, action-packed program uses top quality animation to bring to life the story of missionary martyr Jim Elliot.

    Details
  • History Of Orthodox Christianity $23.99

    History Of Orthodox Christianity

    • DVD
    • 90 Minutes
    • Documentary
    • All
    • 1992
    • Greek Orthodox Telecommunications

    This ambitious project is designed to be the most detailed worldwide television presentation of the Orthodox Church, Her traditions, and Her sacramental life.

    Details
  • Hanged On A Twisted Cross: Dietrich Bonhoeffer $15.99

    Hanged On A Twisted Cross: Dietrich Bonhoeffer

    • DVD
    • 120 Minutes
    • Documentary
    • All
    • 1996
    • Lathika International Film and Entertainment Inc.

    his gripping documentary narrated by Ed Asner captures the life, times, and thought of Bonhoeffer. Using rare archival footage, documents, and visits to original locations, we get an intimate portrait of a man whose life and writings grow in their influence and speak powerfully to issues of our own day some 50 years later. combating unrestrained evil?

    Details
  • Radicals, The $14.99

    Radicals, The

    • DVD
    • 99 Minutes
    • Drama
    • All
    • 1989
    • Sisters & Brothers

    The dramatic story of the Anabaptist movement and two of its first leaders, Michael and Margaretha Sattler.

    Details
  • John Hus $7.99

    John Hus

    • DVD
    • 55 Minutes
    • Drama
    • All
    • 1985
    • Faith for Today

    John Hus was convinced and taught openly that the Bible should be presented in the language of the people, that salvation comes by faith in Jesus Christ, and the Word of God is the final authority. He taught in the University of Prague and as a pastor, challenged the abuses of medieval Christendom.

    Details
  • Through Gates Of Splendor $11.99

    Through Gates Of Splendor

    • DVD
    • 1967
    • All

    One of the most gripping missionary sagas of our time. Five missionaries went into the land of the savage Aucas. Their offer of friendship was rejected, and the Aucas killed the missionaries. Elisabeth Elliot, wife of one of the martyrs, her daughter and Rachel Saint would not give up and eventually lived among and brought the Gospel to the Aucas.

    Details
  • God's Outlaw: The Story Of William Tyndale $11.99

    God's Outlaw: The Story Of William Tyndale

    • DVD
    • 93 Minutes
    • Drama
    • All
    • 1988

    A true story, God's Outlaw is about international politics, church intrigue, cold-blooded betrayal, and false justice ending in a criminal's death. But it's also about victorious faith and spiritual triumph over some of the greatest political and religious forces known in the 16th century.

    Details
  • Bonhoeffer: Agent Of Grace $12.99

    Bonhoeffer: Agent Of Grace

    • DVD
    • 90 Minutes
    • Drama
    • All
    • 1999
    • NFPteleart/Norflicks/ORB

    The story of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a German clergyman of great distinction, who actively opposed Hitler and the Nazis. His convictions cost him his life.

    Details