Christian History Institute

Sharing our story of faith across the ages

items tagged with reformation

Timeline

In Context

  1. The truth might fare better at a lower temperature.
    Philipp Melanchthon (1497–1560), at the Leipzig Debate.

Study Modules

Productions

DVDs

  • This Changed Everything

    2016

    This Changed Everything: 500 Years of the Reformation celebrates the fruits of the Reformation while exploring difficult questions about the cost of division: Could schism have been avoided? Is there hope for reunification? What did Jesus really mean when He prayed for His followers to be "one"?

    In this visually rich, three-part documentary series hosted by actor David Suchet, leading church historians share fascinating insights and pose vital questions about unity, truth, and the future of the Christian church.

    Among the experts featured in this series are Dr. Frank James, Dr. John Armstrong, Dr. Michael Horton, Dr. Jacqueline Rose, Bishop Robert Barron, Mark Galli, Dr. Joel Harrington, Shane Claiborne, Dr. Karin Maag, Dr. Scott Kisker, and many others.

    Bonus material on Disc 2: Over five hours of interviews with experts, virtual tours of key Reformation sites, companion guide in PDF. An interactive guide is also available at www.ThisChangedEverything.com/companion guide. 

    Learn More

  • Zwingli and Calvin

    1994

    Accounts of two famous reformers of Switzerland, Zwingli and Calvin.

    AWARDS

    • Bronze Plaque - Chris Awards 1995
    • Certificate of Excellence - US International Film & Video Festival 1995

    Learn More

  • The Reformation Overview

    1995

    The Reformation Overview is a set adapted from six films which between them have won over thirty prestigious international film awards. Included are Wycliffe, Hus, Zwingli, Luther, Calvin, the Sattlers, and Tyndale.

    Learn More

Magazine Issues

Articles

28 Feb 1987

Three featured paintings

by the editors | Issue 13

The Fishers for Souls was painted in 1614 by Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne depicting the European religious climate as Comenius was entering the ministry.

Catholics and Protestants are fiercely competing for the souls of the people. A river divides the Protestants on the left from the Catholics on the right. Standing on the left bank are James I of England and Prince Maurice, son of the Prince of Orange, Holland. On the right bank are the Catholic Archduke, Albert of Austria, and his wife Isabella.

The rainbow symbolizes a temporary truce...

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12 May 2017

Recommended Resources

by the editors | Issue 122

BOOKS

costly love coverRead about the Catholic Reformation in general in Outram Evennett, The Spirit of the Counter-Reformation (1968); John Olin, Catholic Reform from Cardinal Ximénes to the Council of Trent, 1495–1563 (1990); Marc Forster, The Counter-Reformation in the Villages (1992) and Catholic Revival in the Age of the Baroque (2001); Martin D. W. Jones, The Counter Reformation (1995); Robert Bireley, The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450–1700 (1999); David Luebke, ed., The Counter Reformation (1999); A. D. Wright, The Early Modern Papacy (1999) and...

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12 May 2017

Remaking the world

by Edwin and Jennifer Woodruff Tait | Issue 122

Gian Pietro Carafa (1476–1559)

Pope Paul IVOF THE MAN who became Pope Paul IV, a later writer said, “How so austere a person could be chosen pope was a mystery to everyone, especially to himself.” A member of a wealthy Neapolitan noble family, his uncle, cardinal and diplomat Oliviero Carafa (1430–1511), mentored him from a young age. Gian Pietro tried to join the Dominicans as a teenager, but his family objected. However he soon became a priest and was introduced into the papal court.

[Pope Paul IV; Wikipedia ]

When Gian Pietro was about 30, Oliviero...

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12 May 2017

Coming to America

by Malcolm Foley | Issue 122

Puritans land in AmericaTHE WORD “PURITAN” invokes many reactions, not all of them pleasant—as seen in H. L. Mencken’s famous quip that Puritanism is “a haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy.” But such simplification does not do justice to the complicated story, both beautiful and ugly, of these English Dissenters. When their situation in England got too intense, the Puritans took their religious ambitions, ideas, and practices to America. The effects on American culture were profound. 

 

a thoroughly protestant city

Their story begins in the reign...

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12 May 2017

Reasons of state

by Roger G. Robins | Issue 122

Defenestration of Prague“EVERYWHERE THERE IS ENVY, hatred and greed: that’s what the war has taught us. … We live like animals, eating bark and grass. … Many people say that there is no God. …” These lines, inscribed in a family Bible in a small south German town in 1647, bear witness to the profound trauma inflicted by the waves of warfare that swept central Europe between 1618 and 1648. 

Known collectively as the Thirty Years’ War, these conflicts began as a civil disturbance within a single dominion of the Holy Roman Empire. But they evolved into an existential...

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12 May 2017

The century that changed the world

by the editors | Issue 122

intercession of borromeo
 [Above: Borromeo; Wikimedia ]
Color code: Red: Reformers ; Green: Books and Culture ; Orange: Church and State ; Blue: World Events.  

• 1440 : Gutenberg invents the printing press.

• 1453 : Turks capture Constantinople.

• 1476 : Gian Pietro Carafa is born.

• 1478 : Spanish Inquisition begins.

• 1483 : Martin Luther and Gasparo Contarini are born.

• 1492 : Columbus makes first voyage to the Americas.

• 1498 : Girolamo Savonarola is burned at the stake in Florence.

• 1500 : Reginald Pole is born.

• 1509 : John Calvin is born; Henry VIII becomes king.

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12 May 2017

A renewed and global faith

by Thomas Worcester, S.J. | Issue 122

Entombment of Christ by CanoIMAGINE A CONFESSIONAL: the rows of little doors; the dark ornate wood; the screens that hide the confessor from the penitent. Whether you’ve knelt inside one on a Saturday afternoon or merely seen one as a tourist or in a movie, they represent the Catholic Church in the minds of many. And until the Council of Trent, they didn’t exist. 

i do confess

Confessionals were created after Trent for women penitents, lest their confession of sexual sins be impeded by the awkwardness of speaking face to face with a man. (Later the confessional box...

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12 May 2017

The Persistent Council

by Martin J. Lohrmann | Issue 122

Pope Paul IIITHREE AND ONE HALF YEARS after its opening was first announced, a little over three years after bishops began trickling in, two years after it was suspended, one year after it was convoked again (producing a new trickle of bishops), and 10 months after its announced opening date, at 9:30 in the morning on December 13, 1545, the Council of Trent actually began. Four hundred bishops assembled in the Church of the Most Holy Trinity, sang the hymn “Come, Holy Spirit,” heard a reading of the papal bull Laetere, Jerusalem (1544) and a sermon, and...

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12 May 2017

Picturing saints

by Virginia C. Raguin | Issue 122

Teresa's ecstacyIN THE WAKE of the Protestant Reformation, what piety looked, smelled, sounded, and tasted like varied depending on where you were. 

In Germany Luther’s reform had challenged the hierarchical structure of the Roman Church, with its privileged priesthood, sacraments, and the language of Latin for church services. Consequently while Lutherans kept a role for music and religious art, they rejected the saints as intercessors, the priesthood as a special class, and Latin as the language of worship. At the same time, more radical resistance to...

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12 May 2017

The road not taken

by Edwin Woodruff Tait | Issue 122

MargueriteLUTHER’S TEACHINGS SPREAD like wildfire in the 1520s throughout Europe, attracting sympathetic, enthusiastic readers. From 1523 on they also created martyrs; both civil and religious authorities responded with violence to the threat to religious stability. 

[Marguerite of Navarre; Wikipedia ]

These early martyrs were not yet known as “Protestants,” a term first used in 1529 for German princes who protested an imperial order to stop making religious changes. Catholic opponents called anyone sounding even remotely like Luther a “Lutheran.” The...

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12 May 2017

Lorenzo Scupoli Speaks

by Lorenzo Scupoli | Issue 122

THIS CRUCIFIED LORD … is a book that I give you to read. You will be able to draw from it the true portrait of every virtue. Because it is the book of life, it not only instructs the intellect with words but also inflames the will with living example. All the world is full of books, but … all of them taken together cannot so perfectly teach the way to acquire all virtues as the contemplation of a crucified God.

You know, daughter, that there are some who spend many hours weeping over the passion of our Lord, considering His patience, and...

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11 May 2017

Editor’s Note

by Jennifer Woodruff Tait | Issue 122

As the art staff and I were choosing the (amazing) pictures for this issue, we noticed a theme. Red. Lots of it. Mostly in the vestments of Catholic cardinals, whose stories thread through the following pages. Not every Catholic reformer was a cardinal, and not every cardinal was a reformer. But as we sorted through portraits and altar panels, sculptures and ceiling frescoes, I saw red, in a very good way: a tangible indicator of the vibrancy of the people and events we are unveiling.

I’m deep in the sixteenth century by now, after three...

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11 May 2017

Letters to the Editor

by readers and the editors | Issue 122

albrecht

Our readers send good ideas

Have you ever considered an issue on groups who have observed the seventh-day Sabbath over the centuries? —John Lemley, Vancouver, WA

I would be interested in a magazine devoted to the Shroud of Turin and Sudarium of Oviedo.
Brian Huffmann, Clayton, NC
 

We appreciate the ideas that are sent in and add many to our list of potential issues (which is quite long—we have ideas to keep us going for many years!).

And they also send us love 

Dear CHI Team, please allow me to thank you for the tremendous job you are...

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11 May 2017

Did you know

by the editors | Issue 122

One latte and a monk, please

albrechtThe word cappuccino is originally an Italian word deriving from, surprisingly, the order of Capuchin friars. This reforming order arose in the 1520s when Matteo da Bascio (1495–1552), a Franciscan, sought to return his fellow Franciscans to the primitive ideals of St. Francis of Assisi. At first they were suppressed, but in 1528 the pope approved them. Although their official name was the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, everyone called them simply “Capuchins” after their distinctive brown hoods (cappuccio )....

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12 May 2017

The ecumenical dilemma

by John W. O’Malley, S.J., Paul Rorem, Ernest Freeman, John Armstrong, Thomas A. Baima | Issue 122

John O’Malley, S.J. , is University Professor in the Theology Department at Georgetown University, a Catholic priest, and a member of the Society of Jesus. Illness prevented our originally scheduled interview, but we are pleased to reprint some of his reflections from Trent and All That (2000) on how the Catholic and Protestant Reformations differed.  

Since at least the early nineteenth century until recently, the questions historians of all persuasions asked was “What caused the Reformation?”.…The answer, from all sides, was “abuses.” The...

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15 Nov 2016

Recommended resources

by The Editors | Issue 120

BOOKS

Read about John Calvin ’s life, theology, and influence in Alexandre Ganoczy, The Young Calvin (1987); François Wendel, Calvin (1995); Bernard Cottret, Calvin: A Biography (2000); Richard Muller, The Unaccommodated Calvin (2001), Christ and the Decree (2008), and Calvin and the Reformed Tradition (2012); Christopher Elwood, Calvin for Armchair Theologians (2002); David Hall and Peter Lillback, eds., A Theological Guide to Calvin’s Institutes (2008); Michiel A. van den Berg, Friends of Calvin (2009); Herman Selderhuis, John Calvin: A...

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14 Nov 2016

United with Christ in eternity and at the table

by Raymond A. Blacketer | Issue 120

Calvin memorial

IF I SAY LUTHER, you say “95 Theses .” If I say Zwingli, you say “sausage in Lent.” And if I say Calvin, you say “predestination!” Predestination is a biblical theme and a perennial topic of Christian theology: how God’s sovereignty interacts with our free will. It was not something Calvin invented. Why has his name become so closely tied to the doctrine? 

[Calvin memorial]

amazing grace, how sweet the sound. . .

Some theologians throughout church history, like Augustine, have considered salvation the work of God alone creating faith and...

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14 Nov 2016

Reformation of the refugees

by Edwin Woodruff Tait | Issue 120

A very minor play from the 1590s about the life of Sir Thomas More has one not-so-minor part: a monologue Shakespeare may have penned about a 1517 event, but sounding ripped from today’s headlines. In the play English rioters try to drive out French, Belgian, and Italian refugees, complaining that the strangers will “infect the city with the palsey” by importing their strange new diet (parsnips and pumpkins). 

The character More responds: “Imagine that you see the wretched strangers, / Their babies at their backs and their poor luggage, /...

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14 Nov 2016

Editor’s note

by Jennifer Woodruff Tait | Issue 120

Why do you go to the church you go to? The preaching? The music? The children’s program? Because your next-door neighbor does? As our last two issues devoted to the Reformation have explored, sixteenth-century reformers set out to renew the church and ended up dividing it. Even so, they might be surprised today that we sometimes change denominations as quickly as we change favorite flavors of ice cream. How did this happen?

With this third issue in our Reformation series, we begin to answer that question as we explore what scholars call...

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26 Oct 2016

Another accidental revolutionary

by Jon Balserak | Issue 120

MISSIONARIES SENT INTO THE COUNTRY under assumed names, taking obscure mountain passages in an effort to elude detection by the authorities along the border, provided with false papers and sent out secretly to their destination: sound like North Korea in the twentieth century? No—France in the 1560s. 

Facade of Geneva church

secret agent men

From miles away in Geneva, John Calvin (1509–1564) and Theodore Beza (1519–1605) were discipling French Calvinists. They created and fostered Reformed communities devoted to the Genevan vision by smuggling books on Reformed...

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26 Oct 2016

From Luther to the Lutherans

by David M. Whitford | Issue 120

presenting augsburg confession

In 1717 a Wittenberg homeowner had a carved stone in the wall of his house restored for the 200th anniversary of the Reformation. It read, “God’s Word and Luther’s writings are poison to the pope and Calvin.” It is ironic that two centuries after the Reformation began, Luther’s followers would be lumping Calvinism with Catholicism as his two greatest enemies. For in 1546, as Luther lay on his deathbed, both he and his allies were primarily concerned with Roman Catholic opposition. 

After Luther’s death the movement he began came...

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4 Aug 2016

The Century That Changed the World

by the editors | Issue 120

The sweep of the Reformation and counter-Reformation is visualized in a big, colorful, downloadable timeline with links to related stories. The back of the timeline has a summary of the main lines of the Reformation.

View the inside of the timeline
View the outside of the timeline

Order your own copy of the beautiful two-sided timeline .

 


mag covers Christian History’s 2015–2017 four-part Reformation series is available as a four-pack . This set includes issue #115 Luther Leads the Way ; issue #118 The People’s Reformation ; issue #120 Calvin,...

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3 Aug 2016

BONUS ONLINE CONTENT: Covenant children

by Jennifer Woodruff Tait and John Oyer | Issue 118

Against what offender did Martin Luther write the forceful sentences “I have deemed it unnecessary to answer his kind of book. For who can stop the mouths of all people, even of all devils? I have long ago found that if I stop one mouth of the devil, he opens ten others, and the lie grows constantly greater”? Pope Leo X or Clement VII? A cardinal? A Catholic prince of the Holy Roman Empire?

No: Moravian Anabaptist leader Balthasar Hubmaier, who had published a book, On the Christian Baptism of Believers (1525), arguing that only adults who...

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3 Aug 2016

BONUS ONLINE CONTENT: Recovering the past

by Jennifer Trafton and Jennifer Woodruff Tait | Issue 115

Today the word “humanism” often gets a bad rap, used to describe a world without God and often coupled to the word “secular.” But in the 16th century, many humanists were deeply Christian. The imprint they left on the Reformation was a profound one.

Why were humanists called “humanists”?  Because they were concerned about what makes us human.  In the Middle Ages, scholastic theologians like Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) had argued that what made us human was that we could think: thus, Aquinas compiled a comprehensive, detailed, and precisely...

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2 Aug 2016

BONUS ONLINE CONTENT: The road not taken

by David C. Steinmetz | Issue 118

GASPARO CONTARINI was born in 1483 into a noble Venetian family.  Following his student days at Padua, he lived a strict religious life with his two friends Tommaso Giustiniani and Vincenzo Quirini.  In 1511 Contarini had a spiritual experience which convinced him of the insufficiency of human merits to achieve justification and of the necessity for the action of divine grace.  While Contarini's two friends entered a religious order, Contarini resolved to live a Christian life in the world.  He entered the diplomatic service of the Republic...

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Showing 1-25 of 93 records.

Blog Posts

Products

  • Reformation Teaching Kit $50.00

    Reformation Teaching Kit

    • Other
    • 2015-2017
    • Christian History Institute

    Set includes the DVDs This Changed Everything and Reformation Overview, Christian History Magazine issues #115, #118, #120, and #122, and the Reformation Fold-Out Timeline.

    Details
  • Reformation Four Pack $15.00

    Reformation Four Pack

    • Magazine
    • 2015-2017
    • Christian History Institute

    Includes these four issues of Christian History Magazine: #115 Martin Luther and the Reformation #118 The People's Reformation #120 Calvin, Councils, and Confessions #122 The Catholic Reformation

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine #122- The Catholic Reformation $5.00

    Christian History Magazine #122- The Catholic Reformation

    • Magazine
    • 2017
    • 54 Pages
    • Christian History Institute

    The Catholic Reformation is a story often overlooked by Protestants. In this issue of Christian History magazine, read how some Catholics embraced "evangelical" ideas and helped usher in a new era.

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine #120: Calvin, Councils, and Confessions $5.00

    Christian History Magazine #120: Calvin, Councils, and Confessions

    • Magazine
    • 2016
    • 55 Pages

    A few decades after Luther's stand for reform spread across Europe, a quiet scholarly priest made a fateful stop in Geneva. Read John Calvin's story along with the story of the divisions, martyrdoms, victories, and disappointments that marked the last half of the sixteenth century in this third issue in the Reformation series of Christian History.

    Details
  • Reformation Fold-Out Timeline $2.00

    Reformation Fold-Out Timeline

    • Other
    • 2016
    • Christian History Institute

    The most important events from a century of reform. Unfolds to 11'' x 31''.

    Details
  • Reformation Overview Full Length Dramas Plus Zwingli and Calvin Documentary $119.94

    Reformation Overview Full Length Dramas Plus Zwingli and Calvin Documentary

    • DVD
    • All
    • Documentary
    • 7 hours

    This collection includes the five full-length dramas of John Wycliffe, Martin Luther, God's Outlaw, John Hus, The Radicals and the 30 minute documentary of Zwingli and Calvin.

    Details
  • A Man Named Martin $14.99

    A Man Named Martin

    • DVD
    • All
    • Documentary
    • 80 Minutes
    • 2015

    The life of Martin Luther is one of resolute conviction and steadfast faith. This documentary will examine the life and teaching of this great reformer. The program gives important historical background and explains the key doctrines expounded by Luther: With tenacity and bravery, Martin Luther inspired a Reformation that reverberates throughout the centuries.

    Details
  • Torchlighters: The Martin Luther Story $12.99

    Torchlighters: The Martin Luther Story

    • DVD
    • 2016
    • Animation
    • 30 Minutes
    • All
    • Christian History Institute

    Share the story of Martin Luther, father of the Reformation, with children through this episode of the Torchlighters! Celebrate the 500th anniversary of the Reformation by learning with Luther that salvation comes by faith.

    Details
  • This Changed Everything - Special Two-Disc Set $25.00

    This Changed Everything - Special Two-Disc Set

    • DVD
    • 180 Minutes
    • Documentary
    • All
    • 2016
    • Christian History Institute

    This Changed Everything: 500 Years of the Reformation celebrates the fruits of the Reformation while exploring difficult questions about the cost of division: Could schism have been avoided? Is there hope for reunification? What did Jesus really mean when He prayed for His followers to be "one"? This special two disc set includes the three hour series and over five hours of bonus material.

    Details
  • Reformation Eight Pack $25.00

    Reformation Eight Pack

    • Magazine
    • 1983-2017
    • Christian History Institute

    This special bundle includes eight printed copies of CHM issues about the Reformation.

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine #118: The People's Reformation $5.00

    Christian History Magazine #118: The People's Reformation

    • Magazine
    • 2016
    • 51 Pages
    • Christian History Institute

    It didn’t take long for the ideas of Luther, Zwingli, and many others to ignite a sea change in society at large: peasants revolting, priests and nuns marrying, church art destroyed, heretics on both sides persecuted by church and state, and a philandering king whose search for a male heir would birth the Church of England. Read about one of the most turbulent eras of all of history in issue #118, The People’s Reformation, the second in our Reformation series.

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine- Catch Up Bundle $50.00

    Christian History Magazine- Catch Up Bundle

    • Magazine
    • 2011-2016
    • Christian History Institute

    This special bundle includes printed copies of all 21 issues and our two guides. Topics covered include the Making of the KJV, Early African Christianity, Persecution in the Modern era, Heaven, Martin Luther, and much more.

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine #115: Martin Luther and the Reformation $5.00

    Christian History Magazine #115: Martin Luther and the Reformation

    • Magazine
    • 2015
    • 55 Pages

    The first issue of Christian History magazine's series of four on the Reformation explores the roots and fruits of reform. On a quiet October Wednesday in 1517, a young Augustinian monk and theology professor, with one nail to the Wittenberg Castle door, struck a death blow to medieval Catholicism. That’s the story we think we know of Martin Luther, his 95 Theses, and the beginning of the Reformation. But is it the whole story?

    Details
  • Luther: His Life, His Path, His Legacy $15.99

    Luther: His Life, His Path, His Legacy

    • DVD
    • 90 Minutes
    • All
    • Docu-Drama

    Using stunning dramatic footage from the 2003 theatrical film "Luther", starring Joseph Fiennes, this documentary gives a comprehensive overview of the great reformer's life and legacy.

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine Archive 1-120 $24.99

    Christian History Magazine Archive 1-120

    • Magazine
    • 1982-2014
    • Christian History Institute

    CD-ROM includes PDF text only of Christian History & Biography Magazine Issues 1 through 120.

    Details
  • The History of Christian Worship $2.50

    The History of Christian Worship

    • Other
    • 64 Pages
    • 2012
    • Christian History

    The History of Worship from Constantine to the Reformation takes readers on a one thousand year journey into the fascinating history of worship practices.

    Details
  • History of Hell $2.50

    History of Hell

    • Other
    • 32 Pages
    • 2011
    • Christian History

    The History of Hell, a Brief Survey is a special resource from Christian History magazine presenting the history of Christian thought on hell in a non-biased way.

    Details
  • 100 Most Important Dates in Church History Timeline $2.00

    100 Most Important Dates in Church History Timeline

    • Other
    • 1990
    • Christian History

    This beautiful, fold-out timeline provides some of the most important dates in Christian history.

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine - #28 - 100 Most Important Events in Church History $5.00

    Christian History Magazine - #28 - 100 Most Important Events in Church History

    • Magazine
    • 1990

    Newly Reprinted! Christian History Magazine #28 features the 100 Most Important Events in Church History, includes fold-out timeline.

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine #12 - Calvin $5.00

    Christian History Magazine #12 - Calvin

    • Magazine
    • 1986

    Christian History Magazine featuring John Calvin.

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine #3 - John Wycliffe $5.00

    Christian History Magazine #3 - John Wycliffe

    • Magazine
    • 1983
    • Christian History Institute

    *REPRINT!* Christian History Magazine featuring John Wycliffe.

    Details
  • Christian History Magazine #68 - John Hus $5.00

    Christian History Magazine #68 - John Hus

    • Magazine
    • 2000
    • Christian History

    *LIMITED QUANTITIES AVAILABLE!* Christian History Magazine featuring John Hus.

    Details
  • Where Luther Walked $15.99

    Where Luther Walked

    • DVD
    • 30 Minutes
    • Documentary
    • All
    • 1982
    • Charthouse Learning Corp.

    How did Martin Luther, who sought only the quiet of monastery, become a pivotal figure in Western history? Why did he object so strongly to indulgences? How did Gutenberg's new printing press spread his influence? Who did Luther marry? How did he respond when his young daughter died in his arms?

    Details
  • Zwingli And Calvin $7.99

    Zwingli And Calvin

    • DVD
    • 30 Minutes
    • Documentary
    • All
    • 1994
    • Christian History

    This program covers the 16th century Swiss Reformation, its key centers of Zurich and Geneva, and its central leaders, Zwingli and Calvin—two theologians who led tumultuous lives.

    Details
  • Morning Star Of Wittenberg: Life of Katie Luther $11.99

    Morning Star Of Wittenberg: Life of Katie Luther

    • DVD
    • 27 Minutes
    • Documentary
    • All
    • 2001
    • Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

    An in-depth look at the life of the woman who helped Luther change the course of history. We learn how she coped with incredible demands and survived the continual onslaught of unpredictable developments. We see how she became a capable manager carrying major responsibilities with and for her famous husband.

    Details

Showing 1-25 of 33 records.